The North Pole

The North Pole The North Pole

The North Pole, also known as the Geographical North Pole, is defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. It defines geodetic latitude 90° North.

The North Pole is one of the most amazing sites on our planet. All directions point south and all lines of longitude converge there. The compass needle stops pointing to the north, and winds blow only from the south. The North Pole is the northern-most point on Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shiſting sea ice. The sea depth at the North Pole is 4,261 m, the average ice thickness -2-4 m, the average air temperature in winter -40° C, and in summer - about 0°. The length of the polar day is six months and the length of the polar night is the same at this point.

The history of exploration of the North Pole is dramatic. Many polar explorers perished in their attempts to reach it. At the end of the 16-th century, when a new, shorter route from Europe to China was being sought, Willem Barents was the first to set out in search of a new northern route. However, his first attempt made in 1594 via open water, failed.

Frederick Cook and Robert Peary were considered the pioneers in reaching the pole, independently, in 1908-1909. However, no evidence of this was provided, and, so, their priority in reaching the North Pole was not proven. Many other expeditions: Russian, British, Norwegian, trying to reach the pole on skis, dog sleds and airships, also failed. The first confirmed expedition that reached the pole was a Soviet one in 1948.

Since 1937, the Soviet Union, and later Russia, constructed a number of manned driſting stations, on a mostly annual basis, some of which passed over or very close to the pole.

At present the North Pole is much easier to reach - icebreakers, helicopters and airplanes can deliver any adventurer to this unique point. Some come to the North Pole on skis and some jump with a parachute. If you ever get to the North Pole you can be proud and remember this adventure for the rest of your life. From that moment on you will join the select company of those who have reached the North Pole.